Myth or reality: properties of the human brain that change with age

Or in fact the human brain is aging?

Міф чи реальність: властивості людського мозку, які змінюються з віком

Memory inevitably declines with age, to combat this makes no sense

Indeed, decreases with age speed of memorization of new information and losing focus. But to fight this can and should be. Most importantly, choose the right tactics of the struggle, informs Rus.Media.

It is believed that improves memory crossword puzzles and reciting poetry. This is not so. Moreover, learning poems at least not harmful. But crossword puzzles, if you’ve been doing this from day to day, can lead to the opposite effect – numbness. Paradoxically it sounds. The fact that all the crosswords are built on the same principle. Brain pretty quickly understands that principle and begins to unravel crossword puzzles on the machine. And any action that is carried out regularly on the machine, disables the thought process. The brain is easier to find the right word to spell than to strain to remember the meaning of the word.

Memory train in other ways. Which at first glance does memory not directly related. Reading aloud, playing any musical instrument (especially if you’re learning from scratch), learning any new language, meditation practice.

In old age we are all waiting for senile dementia

Waiting, but not all. Basically anyone who becomes hard to use brain.

The risk of getting dementia or Alzheimer’s disease by inheritance is not great. And it does not exceed 15%. Because those 9 genes that increase the risk of developing dementia and which you could inherit from their parents, work only in certain combinations.

Much higher probability of developing dementia, if there are such factors as obesity and sedentary lifestyle.

With age, the brain works worse

All the way around. With age our brain starts to work better than in his youth. After 60 years in our mind is the so-called “brain ambidekstr”. To 60 between the two hemispheres of the brain there is a strict distribution of functions, and after 60 years for the solution of complex tasks a person can use both hemispheres at the same time. This ensures a higher creative potential and gives you the opportunity to solve more complex problems. Maybe the speed of these tasks somewhat slower. But this does not affect the quality.

READ  Russian scientists have learned to find cracks and oil and gas fields

But if it is, then why do older people often make a very different impression?

Yes, because although the brain and not aging, but often we ourselves with age begin to use them differently. And this leads to the fact that the brain begins to work differently. To the brain worked well it is necessary to actively download. But the problem is that when we do something on the machine, the brain is not working.

Over the years, we accumulate experience, and an increasing number of cases do “on repeat” – not solving the problem, but only repeating the previous solution. It does not load the brain. New connections between neurons do not occur. Old ones disappear. The brain includes a saving mode and begins to grow moss.

With today’s life expectancy, intelligence reaches maturity only after 50. And in this age we get the ability to make the most comprehensive and in-depth thinking. We are starting to better understand people, to better analyze the “pros” and “cons” operate and better General knowledge. Even at 80 years of age on these parameters, we are able to give odds of 20-year-old boys.

Peak transmission speed of nerve impulses in the brain accounted for 60 years and lasts for up to 80-90. If desired, in 60-70 years, you can increase your intellectual capacity in the thirty (!) once the brain gives us that opportunity.

With age, the brain shrinks

So, after 80 years, the brain volume is reduced by approximately 5-10%.

But it’s not necessary. Dancing, running, aerobics and even just walking briskly not only stop the reduction of the brain, but also restore lost volume.

READ  Scientists: Men are more likely than women to become dependent on smartphones

A few years ago a group of scientists from the University of Pittsburgh (USA), researching the state of the brain in the elderly, suddenly found that some types of exercise can halt age-related “seal” of the brain.

The researchers were two age groups (70+) subjects. One group three times a week, walking briskly for 30-45 minutes. The second group in the same rhythm doing the stretching. The experiment lasted for years. All this time scientists have carried out regular brain scans of the subjects.

It turned out that those who walked, prefrontal region of the cortex and the hippocampus, responsible for planning and memory, increased in size by 2-3%. And this small enough to to block the age of the “seal” of the brain. In walking participants also improved spatial memory. This inspection was carried out with the help of special tests. But the group, which for years engaged in the stretching, no improvement in the cerebral cortex did not happen. The hippocampus and they have continued to “dry up” in accordance with standard age-related changes.

Nerve cells do not regenerate

The myth that nerve cells do not regenerate, is the undisputed leader among all the ideas about the brain, in captivity which we live.

The author of this postulate was an outstanding scientist, father of neural theory of Santiago Ramon and Cajal. In 1928 he stated that the loss of neurons as a result of injury or aging is fatal. The authority of a Nobel laureate was so great that none of the scientists of the twentieth century have not even tried to refute the hypothesis of Ramon and Cajal. Moreover, what was known about age-related loss of brain mass.

READ  Backup for door turned out to be a meteorite worth 100 thousand dollars

But in 1965, mit Professor Joseph Altman found that in rats, Guinea pigs and cats neurogenesis (birth of new nerve cells) occurs throughout life. Altman suggested that in the brains of people the same thing happens. Of course, his hypothesis seriously no one took. However, after Altman in the 70-80-ies of the last century to the same conclusions of dozens of other American and European researchers.

The battle for the refutation of the myth was more than 20 years. She was accompanied by wild public disputes known scientific journals, University scandals, and even some scientists of science. Only in the 90-ies, after a series of articles by well-known neuroscientist Fernando Nottebohm on neurogenesis in the brain of songbirds, public opinion managed to break the deadlock.

Today, adult neurogenesis is an axiom requiring no proof. This was first confirmed during a scientific experiment in 2010, and in 2013, a global study was undertaken of people born between 1945 and 1963. As a result of these research found out that neurogenesis in the adult brain continues throughout a person’s life. But only in certain areas in the hippocampus and in regions adjacent to the lateral cerebral ventricles. The hippocampus in particular is born every day 700 new neurons. That is, 35% of the cells of the hippocampus – forever young.

(The hippocampus is responsible for learning and memory, integration of sensory information, in response to new information, for regulating mood).

Will all this new data to eradicate the myth of the fatal loss of nerve cells? Unlikely. Myths, as we know, phenomenally tenacious and virtually indestructible. And different from scientific hypotheses.

Share Button

Leave a Reply

Notify of