Women are advised to undergo examination by a gynecologist at least once a year, since diseases of the reproductive system, it is often pursues the fair sex. Ovarian cancer is ranked ninth in incidence and fifth in mortality. That is why it is important to know about prevention, symptoms and treatment of ovarian cancer. This will be discussed in this material.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer
Appeal to the specialist in that case, if the following symptoms persist for two weeks. Immediately make an appointment with a gynecologist if you have:
- Pain in the pelvic area or lower abdomen;
- Increased stomach volume;
- Feel bloated;
- Frequent urination or problems with control of urination;
- Nausea, vomiting, constipation and diarrhea (alternating), heaviness in the abdomen;
- Vaginal bleeding or unusual vaginal discharge;
- Soreness during sex;
- Ascites (excessive fluid in the abdominal cavity);
- Back pain;
- Menstrual cycles and hormone levels;
- Quickly feel full early in the eating feel fullness of the stomach.
There are also accompanying symptoms, such as: fatigue, stress or depression, weight loss, lethargy, fever, neurologic abnormalities, headaches. It is usually appear at late stages.
Ovarian cancer risk increases at age above 55 years and those who have a bad heredity. Need to know hurt your family in the female line this disease. Also, if you have these symptoms do not immediately panic and put a diagnosis. This can be done only specialist after passing certain tests. Besides ovarian cancer in the first stage, easily treatable. For this reason, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist to not run status.
However, not all neoplasms in the ovaries are malignant, they account for only 15 percent of all education in this authority. There are also borderline and benign tumors. The latter does not extend beyond the ovaries, and the border have some signs of malignancy, but in such formations, the prognosis is generally more favourable. All tumor histogenetically parameter are divided into four types: epithelial (serous and pseudomucinous), tumors of sex cord stromal (fibroma), germ cell (developing from primordial germ cells) and cysts (dermoid, follicular and luteum cysts). Of the first three cancer risk exist, and in cysts it is formed rarely. But they can be various complications, for example, the rotations of the leg cysts, pus, hemorrhage into the cyst, rupture of cysts.
What is ovarian cancer?
Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor tissue that is part of these bodies. With this ailment there is a rapid growth of cells and formation of metastases, which can be and in other organs.
Cancer can be like without education various related tumors, and grow from some precancerous processes, benign tumors and so on. Thus, there are primary and secondary ovarian cancer. Cancer in this organ can emerge from metastases that were released in other areas of the body, for example, rectum, stomach, lung, breast and others. It is noteworthy that secondary ovarian cancer is found in 80 percent of cases, ie develops from a precancerous state.
Ovarian cancer occurs quite often. It ranks third after cervical cancer and uterine cancer. It is only 25 percent of all cancer of the female genital organs. But the death rate from diseases almost the highest is 50 percent. According to statistics, ovarian cancer face 70 of 100 000 Russian women. Unfortunately, it often occurs in women in late stages, which leads to death.
Causes of ovarian cancer
Etiology of ovarian cancer as such, no. But there are certain circumstances which increase the risk of this disease. These include the number of ovulations. It is known that women who have never given birth are more likely to encounter disease than those who gave birth at least once. Also at risk include those who have early onset of ovulation (up to 12 years) and late menopause (after 55 years). It is believed that when a large number of ovulation there is a certain load on the fabric epithelium of the ovary, which has to go through a large number of regeneration cycles. This leads to the increased risk of genetic abnormalities in cells, leading to the formations, often malignant.
The risk of ovarian cancer increases in women not taking combined hormonal contraceptives. Considers that the acceptance of such contraceptives can inhibit ovulation, and, as we mentioned above, frequent ovulation lead to cancer. Also with reduced associated risk of multiple pregnancy. Infertility may increase the likelihood of ovarian cancer in two or three times. Often the risk group also includes those women whose relatives suffered from this disease. In other words, heredity. To detect this possibility must undergo genetic testing. In some cases, women with an increased risk even offer to remove the ovaries.
There are other circumstances affecting the risk of cancer. These include:
- Reduced immunity;
- High levels of stress;
- Unhealthy diet, lack of fiber, high levels in the diet of animal fats, vitamin deficiency;
- Bad ecology, bad habits;
- Lethargic lifestyle;
- Long-term effects of carcinogenic substances;
- Concomitant diseases: inflammation of the ovaries and other organs of the reproductive system: sexually transmitted diseases, frequent abortions, pathology in childbirth; uterine fibroids; bleeding during menopause and so on.
Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer
The success of treatment for ovarian cancer depends on how soon the disease will be found. Thus, if symptoms of the disease for two or more weeks you must immediately consult a gynecologist. There are several types of surveys. First is the bimanual study, that is, the gynecologist performs examination through the vagina and abdominal wall. Also used a rectal exam.
You need to understand that a simple inspection will give the doctor the full picture. Therefore, the most accurate method of diagnosis are ultrasonography (USG) of the pelvic organs, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, laparoscopy, Doppler, positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, blood tests, biopsies if necessary.
Treatment of ovarian cancer can be varied and, of course, is purely individual. Mainly there are the following methods: surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, palliative.
Prevention of ovarian cancer
There are no specific preventive measures aimed specifically at preventing this disease. However, each woman should visit the gynecologist once a year and tests for tumor markers. This is especially true of those whose relatives were faced with ovarian cancer or breast.
This applies not only to young girls but also women in menopause. Because susceptibility to disease at this time is much higher.
It is also helpful to stick to a healthy lifestyle, eat right, exercise, take a walk. It is necessary to abandon bad habits, time to treat the infection of the urinary organs, and also avoid exposure of the body and contact with potentially carcinogenic substances. With this approach, ovarian cancer risk will be minimized.